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Man-made recipe for better health


If you are a man, going to work might soon feel like a visit to the doctor. Although you are unlikely to go home clutching a prescription, you could find yourself bombarded with health information designed to reduce developing heart disease or cancer.

Because men are at high risk of ill-health, you are liable to be shown videos, handed leaflets or herded into seminars, so you can learn about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. M25 construction workers, Whitby refuse collectors, Derbyshire Peak park rangers, passport agency staff and Army soldiers are among those already exposed to this new

If you work in Dorset, you could join the latest scheme, Keeping It Up, launched this month by Dorset Healthcare NHS Trust. This operates like a mini-football league, but the teams gain points if their members lose body fat and therefore reduce risk of heart attack. The league includes organisations such as BP, Eldridge Pope brewery, a further education college and several local councils.

To take part, you have to be male, middle-aged and overweight, a key group fot heart disease prevention. Team members meet with a tutor at the workplace for an hour to learn about diet, exercise and stress management. At the end of the six-month season, the team that has
wins a trophy: the Keeping It Up Challenge Cup.


Letter to the editor


David Hargreaves astutely describes the anxiety of students awaiting their A-level results. As one such 18-year-old, I have been in a state of nervous anticipation; not for my results, more a fear of the ill-informed speculation about "dumbing down" which inevitably accompanies them, of which his article is an excellent example.
When harking back to a "golden age" in which students were required to "know thoroughly 100 years of British and European history" he appears unaware that current history courses require students to answer in depth on, for instance, over 100 years of post-Reformation European history.
English syllabuses, contrary to his beliefs, still demand knowledge of writers of the era of Milton and Dryden as well as the study of Shakespeare. Although I come from a humble comprehensive, I cannot imagine that the A-level courses taught in independent schools such as Mr Hargreaves's are as unchallenging as he claims. A-level students should feel insulted by the attempts to denigrate their achievements. The advent of the AS examination has - rather than creating the easy modular component Mr Hargreaves decries - introduced a massive workload for Year 12 pupils; harder, university friends have claimed, in terms of its intensive nature, than that set for a degree.
Helen Mort, Chesterfield, Derbyshire

The Sunday Telegraph

Helen Mort's letter is headed "Insulted".
What does she feel insulted by?

By David Hargreaves's suggestion that


Are we right to treat animals the way we do?

HOW did the West get the idea that it is perfectly all right to kill animals?
According to Genesis, the first book of the Bible, dominion over animals was granted to the first human couple, Adam and Eve, but that dominion did not extend to killing animals, so food was   3   . An important influence came from the pagan side. The pagan Greek philosophers had an evenly matched debate on whether it was all right to kill animals. The most influential of the anti-animal views was that of the ancient Stoics, who started around 300BC. They had a striking and in many ways a very humane view. All rational beings are bound together by bonds of attachment and owe each other justice.   4   all humans are rational, justice is owed to slaves and foreigners. They criticised Aristotle's view of slavery and said there is no such thing as a natural slave. The   5   the Stoic view was that, in their opinion, no animals were rational, so none belonged to the community to which justice was owed and nothing you did to an animal could be an injustice.

The Independent

Which of the following fits the gap in the text? [3]


Which of the following fits the gap in the text? [4]


Which of the following fits the gap in the text? [5]


Food tastes better when you’re hungry

By David Derbyshire - Science Correspondent

1 CHOCOLATE, chips and hamburgers really do taste better when one is hungry, according to a study which could explain why dieting is so hard.
2 Simply skipping breakfast is enough to change our sense of taste, researchers report today. They suggest that people who do not eat between meals enjoy food more and those who "graze" all day are missing out.
3 Prof Yuriy Zverev, from Malawi University, persuaded 16 undergraduates to miss breakfast after having a set dinner at 6.30pm the day before. He then asked them to sip solutions of sugar, salt or quinine in different concentrations and report whether they were tasting sweet, salty or bitter drinks. An hour after lunch, the students repeated the test. Prof Zverev found that hungry students were more sensitive to sweet and salty drinks. However, their ability to detect bitterness did not change, he reports in the journal BMC Neuroscience.
4 This difference could be linked to the different roles of the sweet, salt and bitter tastes in our diets. "While sweet and salty tastes are indicators of edible substances and trigger consumption, a bitter taste indicates a substance which is not suitable for consumption and should be rejected," says Prof Zverev. The role of bitterness as a warning sign could explain why the students recognised relatively dilute solutions of quinine. Salt or sugar solutions had to be more concentrated before they were detected.
5 Prof Zverev believes hunger could increase the sensitivity of tastebuds, or change the way the brain "listens" to tongue sensors.

"Food tastes better when you’re hungry" (kop)
In welke alinea staat de mogelijke oorzaak hiervan aangegeven?


Joanna Bourke

1 - IN HISTORY, nothing is clear cut. [A] Contradiction and confusion are always present in the texts we use to interpret the past. Nowhere is this more so than when we analyse war stories. Sometimes, the letters and diaries of British servicemen seem to stutter in a desperate attempt to make sense of the unutterable horror of their surroundings: 'I cannot, cannot bear this, dear wife, the cries are just awful, terrible, oh my,' scrawled one soldier during the Battle of the Somme. Then, at another point, their letters become an eager hymn to the 'joy of slaughter', the 'exhilaration' and 'satisfaction' of destroying human life.
2 - What is the historian to make of such tensions? [B] With a few notable exceptions, military historians flinch away from distasteful subjects involving 'our men'. Discussing British men and women who were both victims and executioners is taboo. My own case, a female historian writing about killing in warfare, elicited looks of horror and, occasionally, rage among some of my fellow historians.
3 - We need to be more willing to discuss such topics, however. [C] There is no sense in being controversial for the sake of it (poor scholarship wrecks careers, rather than making them), but [D] historians have a duty to men and women in the past to discuss them in a full-rounded way. Their stories maybe contradictory, consolatory, and often fantastical, but bewilderment, hope, and fantasy are the very stuff of human experience.

Prof Joanna Bourke is the author of An Intimate History of Killing

BBC History Magazine

What is the main point made in the first paragraph?


What is to be concluded about military historians from the second paragraph?


Which quotation sums up the main point made by Joanna Bourke?